Geologists, Geophysicists and Hydrogeologists study the composition, structure and other physical attributes of the earth, locate and advise on the extraction of minerals, petroleum and ground water, and detect, monitor and forecast seismic, magnetic, electrical, thermal and oceanographic activity. Geographers are not included here, they are included in Social Professionals.
A Bachelor Degree or higher is required. Nearly all workers have a university degree. Sometimes relevant experience or on-the-job training is also needed.
- conducting preliminary surveys of mineral, petroleum and natural gas deposits with prospectors, Mining Engineers, Metallurgists, and other mineral scientists and engineers
- preparing and supervising the production of laboratory reports and scientific papers
- conducting studies of the structure, nature and formation of the earth's crust and the minerals contained in it
- studying and dating fossils and rock strata to develop knowledge of the evolution and biology of life forms, and to assess their commercial applications
- studying the effects of natural events, such as erosion, sedimentation, earthquakes and volcanic activity, on the formation of the earth's surface and sea beds
- carrying out exploration to determine the resources present by sampling, examining and analysing geological specimens, rock cores, cuttings and samples using optical, chemical, electronic and mechanical techniques
- conducting surveys of variations in the earth's gravitational and magnetic fields to determine its physical features
- investigating the propagation of seismic waves to determine the structure and stability of the earth's mantle and crust
- studying the causes of earthquakes and other stress states of the earth's crust
- performing laboratory and field studies, and aerial, ground and drill hole surveys
Studies the composition, structure and other physical attributes of the earth to increase scientific knowledge and to develop practical applications in fields such as mineral exploitation, civil engineering, environmental protection and rehabilitation of land after mining.
Specialisations: Marine Geologist, Palaeontologist
Studies the composition, structure and other physical attributes of the earth, locates minerals, petroleum or ground water, and detects, monitors and forecasts seismic, magnetic, electrical, geothermal and oceanographic activity.
Specialisations: Oceanographer, Seismologist
Monitors, measures, analyses and describes the earth's surface and groundwater resources and many aspects of the water cycle, including human use of water resources.